Section 181-194 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Preamble Section 1-6 [Chapter 1 – Founding provisions] Section 7-8 (Rights & Appilcation) Section 9 (Equality) Section 10-11 (Human Dignity & Life) Section 12 (Freedom and Security of the Person) Section 13-14 (Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour & Privacy) Section 15 (Freedom of Religion, Belief and Opinion) Section 16 (Freedom of Expression) Section 17-18 (Assembly, Demonstration, Picket and Petition & Freedom of Association) Section 19 (Political Rights) Section 20-21 (Citizenship & Freedom of Movement and Residence) Section 22 (Freedom of Trade, Occupation and Profession) Section 23 (Labour Relations) Section 24 (Environment) Section 25 (Property) Section 26-27 (Housing & Health Care, Food Water and Social Security) Section 28 (Children) Section 29 (Education) Section 30 (Language and Culture) Section 31 (Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities) Section 32 (Access to Information) Section 33 (Just Administrative Action) Section 34 (Access to Courts) Section 35 (Arrested, Detained and Accused Persons) Section 36 (Limitation of Rights) Section 37 (States of Emergency) Section 38 (Enforcement of Rights) Section 39 (Interpretation of Bill of Rights) Section 40-41 [Chapter 3 – Co-operative government] Section 42-52 Section 53-63 Section 64-74 Section 75-82 Section 83-92 Section 93-102 [Chapter 1 – Founding provisions] Section 103 (Provinces) Section 104-114 Section 115-124 Section 125-132 Section 133-141 Section 142-145 (Provincial Constitutions) Section 146-150 (Conflicting Laws) Section 151-164 [Chapter 7 – Local Government] Section 165-172 Section 173-180 Section 181-194 [Chapter 9 – State institutions supporting constitutional democracy] Section 195-197 [Chapter 10 – Public Administration] Section 198-210 [Chapter 111 – Security Services] Section 211-212 [Chapter 12 – Traditional Leaders] Section 213-219 (General Financial Matters) Section 220-230 Section 231-243 (General Provisions) Schedule 1 – National Flag Schedule 1A – Geographical areas of provinces Schedule 2 – Oaths & Solemn Affirmations Schedule 3 – Election Procedures Schedule 4 – Functional Areas of Concurrent National and Provincial Legislative Competence Schedule 5 – Functional Areas of Exclusive Provincial Legislative Competence Schedule 6 – Transitional Arrangements Schedule 7 – Laws Repealed

Section 181-194 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Section 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 and 194 of the Constitution of South Africa 1996 (as amended) are under Chapter 9 of the Constitution. Chapter 9 is titled ‘State institutions supporting constitutional democracy‘.

Section 181 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Establishment and governing principles

1. The following state institutions strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic:

a. The Public Protector.

b. The South African Human Rights Commission.

c. The Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities.

d. The Commission for Gender Equality.

e. The Auditor-General.

f. The Electoral Commission.

2. These institutions are independent, and subject only to the Constitution and the law, and they must be impartial and must exercise their powers and perform their functions without fear, favour or prejudice.

See also  Section 26-27 Constitution of South Africa 1996

3. Other organs of state, through legislative and other measures, must assist and protect these institutions to ensure the independence, impartiality, dignity and effectiveness of these institutions.

4. No person or organ of state may interfere with the functioning of these institutions.

5. These institutions are accountable to the National Assembly, and must report on their activities and the performance of their functions to the Assembly at least once a year.

(Section 182-183) Public Protector

Section 182 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of Public Protector

1. The Public Protector has the power, as regulated by national legislation ­

a. to investigate any conduct in state affairs, or in the public administration in any sphere of government, that is alleged or suspected to be improper or to result in any impropriety or prejudice;

b. to report on that conduct; and

c. to take appropriate remedial action.

2. The Public Protector has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

3. The Public Protector may not investigate court decisions.

4.The Public Protector must be accessible to all persons and communities.

5. Any report issued by the Public Protector must be open to the public unless exceptional circumstances, to be determined in terms of national legislation, require that a report be kept confidential.

Section 183 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Tenure

The Public Protector is appointed for a non-renewable period of seven years.

(Section 184) South African Human Rights Commission

Section 184 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of South African Human Rights Commission

1. The South African Human Rights Commission must ­

a. promote respect for human rights and a culture of human rights;

b. promote the protection, development and attainment of human rights; and

c. monitor and assess the observance of human rights in the Republic.

2. The South African Human Rights Commission has the powers, as regulated by national legislation, necessary to perform its functions, including the power ­

a. to investigate and to report on the observance of human rights;

b. to take steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated;

c. to carry out research; and

d. to educate.

3. Each year, the South African Human Rights Commission must require relevant organs of state to provide the Commission with information on the measures that they have taken towards the realisation of the rights in the Bill of Rights concerning housing, health care, food, water, social security, education and the environment.

4. The South African Human Rights Commission has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

(Section 185-186) Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities

Section 185 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of Commission

1. The primary objects of the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities are ­

a. to promote respect for the rights of cultural, religious and linguistic communities;

b. to promote and develop peace, friendship, humanity, tolerance and national unity among cultural, religious and linguistic communities, on the basis of equality, non-discrimination and free association; and

c. to recommend the establishment or recognition, in accordance with national legislation, of a cultural or other council or councils for a community or communities in South Africa.

See also  Section 34 Constitution of South Africa 1996

2. The Commission has the power, as regulated by national legislation, necessary to achieve its primary objects, including the power to monitor, investigate, research, educate, lobby, advise and report on issues concerning the rights of cultural, religious and linguistic communities.

3. The Commission may report any matter which falls within its powers and functions to the South African Human Rights Commission for investigation.

4. The Commission has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

Section 186 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Composition of Commission

1. The number of members of the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities and their appointment and terms of office must be prescribed by national legislation.

2. The composition of the Commission must-

a. be broadly representative of the main cultural, religious and linguistic communities in South Africa; and

b. broadly reflect the gender composition of South Africa.

(Section 187) Commission for Gender Equality

Section 187 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of Commission for Gender Equality

1. The Commission for Gender Equality must promote respect for gender equality and the protection, development and attainment of gender equality.

2. The Commission for Gender Equality has the power, as regulated by national legislation, necessary to perform its functions, including the power to monitor, investigate, research, educate, lobby, advise and report on issues concerning gender equality.

3. The Commission for Gender Equality has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

(Section 188-189) Auditor-General

Section 188 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of Auditor-General

1. The Auditor-General must audit and report on the accounts, financial statements and financial management of ­

a. all national and provincial state departments and administrations;

b. all municipalities; and

c. any other institution or accounting entity required by

2. In addition to the duties prescribed in subsection (1), and subject to any legislation, the Auditor-General may audit and report on the accounts, financial statements and financial management of ­

a. any institution funded from the National Revenue Fund or a Provincial Revenue Fund or by a municipality; or

b. any institution that is authorised in terms of any law to receive money for a public purpose.

3. The Auditor-General must submit audit reports to any legislature that has a direct interest in the audit, and to any other authority prescribed by national legislation. All reports must be made public.

4. The Auditor-General has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

Section 189 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Tenure

The Auditor-General must be appointed for a fixed, non-renewable term of between five and ten years.

(Section 190-191) Electoral Commission

Section 190 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Functions of Electoral Commission

1. The Electoral Commission must ­

a. manage elections of national, provincial and municipal legislative bodies in accordance with national legislation;

b. ensure that those elections are free and fair; and

c. declare the results of those elections within a period that must be prescribed by national legislation and that is as short as reasonably possible.

2. The Electoral Commission has the additional powers and functions prescribed by national legislation.

Section 191 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Composition of Electoral Commission

The Electoral Commission must be composed of at least three persons. The number of members and their terms of office must be prescribed by national legislation.

See also  Section 28 Constitution of South Africa 1996

(Section 192) Independent Authority to Regulate Broadcasting

Section 192 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Broadcasting Authority

National legislation must establish an independent authority to regulate broadcasting in the public interest, and to ensure fairness and a diversity of views broadly representing South African society.

(Section 193-194) General Provisions

Section 193 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Appointments

1. The Public Protector and the members of any Commission established by this Chapter must be women or men who ­

a. are South African citizens;

b. are fit and proper persons to hold the particular office; and

c. comply with any other requirements prescribed by national legislation.

2. The need for a Commission established by this Chapter to reflect broadly the race and gender composition of South Africa must be considered when members are appointed.

3. The Auditor-General must be a woman or a man who is a South African citizen and a fit and proper person to hold that office. Specialised knowledge of, or experience in, auditing, state finances and public administration must be given due regard in appointing the Auditor-General.

4. The President, on the recommendation of the National Assembly, must appoint the Public Protector, the Auditor-General and the members of ­

a. the South African Human Rights Commission;

b. the Commission for Gender Equality; and

c. the Electoral Commission.

5. The National Assembly must recommend persons ­

a. nominated by a committee of the Assembly proportionally composed of members of all parties represented in the Assembly; and

b. approved by the Assembly by a resolution adopted with a supporting vote ­

i. of at least 60 per cent of the members of the Assembly, if the recommendation concerns the appointment of the Public Protector or the Auditor-General; or

ii. of a majority of the members of the Assembly, if the recommendation concerns the appointment of a member of a Commission.

6. The involvement of civil society in the recommendation process may be provided for as envisaged in section 59(1)(a).

Section 194 Constitution of South Africa 1996

Removal from office

1. The Public Protector, the Auditor-General or a member of a Commission established by this Chapter may be removed from office only on ­

a. the ground of misconduct, incapacity or incompetence;

b. a finding to that effect by a committee of the National Assembly; and

c. the adoption by the Assembly of a resolution calling for that person’s removal from office.

2. A resolution of the National Assembly concerning the removal from office of ­

a. the Public Protector or the Auditor-General must be adopted with a supporting vote of at least two thirds of the members of the Assembly; or

b. a member of a Commission must be adopted with a supporting vote of a majority of the members of the Assembly.

3. The President ­

a. may suspend a person from office at any time after the start of the proceedings of a committee of the National Assembly for the removal of that person; and

b. must remove a person from office upon adoption by the Assembly of the resolution calling for that person’s removal.


See also: Section 151-164 Constitution of South Africa 1996

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