Click – Indian Evidence Act 1872 ↓
5. Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts.
6. Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction
7. Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue
8. Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conduct
9. Facts necessary to explain or introduce relevant facts
10. Things said or done by conspirator in reference to common design
11. When facts not otherwise relevant become relevant
12. In suits for damages, facts tending to enable Court to determine amount are relevant
13. Facts relevant when right or custom is in question
14. Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body, of bodily feeling
15. Facts bearing on question whether act was accidental or intentional
16. Existence of course of business when relevant
17. Admission defined
19. Admissions by persons whose position must be proved as against party to suit
20. Admissions by persons expressly referred to by party to suit
21. Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf
22. When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevant
22A. When oral admission as to contents of electronic records are relevant
23. Admissions in civil cases when relevant
24. Confession caused by inducement, threat or promise, when irrelevant in criminal proceeding.
25. Confession to police-officer not to be proved
26. Confession by accused while in custody of Police not to be proved against him.
27. How much of information received from accused, may be proved
28. Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat or promise, relevant.
29. Confession otherwise relevant not to become irrelevant because of promise of secrecy, etc.
30. Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for
31. Admissions not conclusive proof, but may estop.
32. Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc., is
33. Relevancy of certain evidence for proving, in subsequent proceeding, the truth of facts therein
34. Entries in books of account when relevant.
35. Relevancy of entry in public record made in performance of duty.
36. Relevancy of statements in maps, charts and plans.
37. Relevancy of statement as to fact of public nature contained in certain Acts or notifications.
38. Relevancy of statements as to any law contained in law-books.
39. What evidence to be given when statement from part of a conversation, document, electronic
record, book or series of letters or papers.
40. Previous judgments relevant to bar a second suit or trial.
41. Relevancy of certain judgments in probate, etc., jurisdiction.
42. Relevancy and effect of judgments, orders or decrees, other than those mentioned in section 41.
43. Judgments, etc., other than those mentioned in sections 40, 41 and 42, when relevant.
44. Fraud or collusion in obtaining judgment, or incompetency of Court, may be proved.
45. Opinions of experts.
45A. Opinion of Examiner of Electronic Evidence
46. Facts hearing upon opinions of experts.
47. Opinion as to handwriting, when relevant.
47A. Opinion as to digital signature, when relevant
48. Opinion as to existence of right or custom, when relevant.
49. Opinion as to usages, tenets, etc., when relevant.
50. Opinion on relationship, when relevant.
51. Grounds of opinion, when relevant.
52. In civil cases character to prove conduct imputed, irrelevant.
53. In criminal cases previous good character relevant.
53A. Evidence of character or previous sexual experience not relevant in certain cases.
54. Previous bad character not relevant, except in reply.
55. Character as affecting damages
56. Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved.
57. Facts of which Court must take judicial notice.
58. Facts admitted need not be proved.
59. Proof of facts by oral evidence.
60. Oral evidence must be direct.
61. Proof of contents of documents.
62. Primary evidence.
63. Secondary evidence.
64. Proof of documents by primary evidence.
65. Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be given
65A. Special provisions as to evidence relating to electronic record.
65B. Admissibility of electronic records.
66. Rules as to notice to produce.
67. Proof of signature and handwriting of person alleged to have signed or written document
67A. Proof as to electronic signature.
68. Proof of execution of document required by law to be attested.
69. Proof where no attesting witness found.
70. Admission of execution by party to attested document
71. Proof when attesting witness denies the execution.
72. Proof of document not required by law to be attested.
73. Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved.
73A. Proof as to verification of digital signature.
74. Public documents.
75. Private documents.
76. Certified copies of public documents.
77. Proof of documents by production of certified copies.
78. Proof of other official documents.
79. Presumption as to genuineness of certified copies
80. Presumption as to documents produced as record of evidence.
81. Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documents.
81A. Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms.
82. Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature.
83. Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government.
84. Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions.
85. Presumptions as to powers-of-attorney.
85A. Presumption as to electronic agreements.
85B. Presumption as to electronic records and electronic signatures.
85C. Presumption as to electronic signature certificates.
86. Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial records.
87. Presumption as to books, maps and charts.
88. Presumption as to telegraphic messages.
88A. Presumption as to electronic messages.
89. Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced.
90. Presumption as to documents thirty years old
90A. Presumption as to electronic records five years old.
91. Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of
92. Exclusion of evidence of oral agreement.
93. Exclusion of evidence to explain or amend ambiguous document.
94. Exclusion of evidence against application of document to existing facts.
95. Evidence as to document unmeaning in reference to existing facts.
96. Evidence as to application of language which can apply to one only of several persons.
97. Evidence as to application of language to one of two sets of facts, to neither of which the whole
98. Evidence as to meaning of illegible characters, etc.
99. Who may give evidence of agreement varying terms of document.
100. Saving of provisions of Indian Succession Act relating to wills.
101. Burden of proof.
102. On whom burden of proof lies.
103. Burden of proof as to particular fact.
104. Burden of proving fact to be proved to make evidence admissible
105. Burden of proving that case of accused comes within exceptions.
106. Burden of proving fact especially within knowledge.
107. Burden of proving death of person known to have been alive within thirty years.
108. Burden of proving that person is alive who has not been heard of for seven years.
109. Burden of proof as to relationship in the cases of partners, landlord and tenant, principal and
110. Burden of proof as to ownership.
111. Proof of good faith in transactions where one party is in relation of active confidence.
111A. Presumption as to certain offences.
112. Birth during marriage, conclusive proof of legitimacy.
113. Proof of cession of territory.
113A. Presumption as to abetment of suicide by a married woman.
113B. Presumption as to dowry death.
114. Court may presume existence of certain facts.
114A. Presumption as to absence of consent in certain prosecution for rape
116. Estoppel of tenants and of licensee of person in possession.
117. Estoppel of acceptor of bill of exchange, bailee or licensee.
118. Who may testify.
119. Witness unable to communicate verbally.
120. Parties to civil suit, and their wives or husbands. Husband or wife of person under criminal trial.
121. Judges and Magistrates.
122. Communications during marriage
123. Evidence as to affairs of State.
124. Official communications.
125. Information as to commission of offences.
126. Professional communications.
127. Section 126 to apply to interpreters, etc.
128. Privilege not waived by volunteering evidence
129. Confidential communications with legal advisers.
130. Production of title-deeds of witness not a party.
131. Production of documents or electronic records which another person, having possession, could
refuse to produce.
132. Witness not excused from answering on ground that answer will criminate.
134. Number of witnesses.
135. Order of production and examination of witnesses.
136. Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence.
138. Order of examinations.
Direction of re-examination.
139. Cross-examination of person called to produce a document.
140. Witnesses to character.
141. Leading questions.
142. When they must not be asked.
143. When they may be asked.
144. Evidence as to matters in writing
145. Cross-examination as to previous statements in writing
146. Questions lawful in cross-examination.
147. When witness to be compelled to answer.
148. Court to decide when question shall be asked and when witness compelled to answer.
149. Question not to be asked without reasonable grounds.
150. Procedure of Court in case of question being asked without reasonable grounds.
151. Indecent and scandalous questions.
152. Questions intended to insult or annoy.
153. Exclusion of evidence to contradict answers to questions testing veracity.
154. Question by party to his own witness.
155. Impeaching credit of witness.
156. Questions tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact, admissible.
157. Former statements of witness may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to same fact.
158. What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under
section 32 or 33.
159. Refreshing memory.
160. Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section159.
161. Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory.
162. Production of documents.
Translation of documents.
163. Giving, as evidence, of document called for and produced on notice.
164. Using, as evidence, of document production of which was refused on notice
165. Judge’s power to put questions or order production.
166. Power of jury or assessors to put questions.
167. No new trial for improper admission or rejection of evidence.
THE SCHEDULE [Repealed.]
Section 47 Indian Evidence Act 1872
Section 47 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 is about ‘ Opinion as to hand-writing, when relevant’. It is under ‘OPINIONS OF THIRD PERSONS WHEN RELEVANT’ of Chapter II of the Act. Chapter II is titled ‘ OF THE RELEVANCY OF FACTS‘.
Opinion as to hand-writing, when relevant
When the Court has to form an opinion as to the person by whom any document was written or signed, the opinion of any person acquainted with the handwriting of the person by whom it is supposed to be written or signed that it was or was not written or signed by that person, is a relevant fact.
Explanation. ––A person is said to be acquainted with the handwriting of another person when he has seen that person write, or when he has received documents purporting to be written by that person in answer to documents written by himself or under his authority and addressed to that person, or when, in the ordinary course of business, documents purporting to be written by that person have been habitually submitted to him.
The question is, whether a given letter is in the handwriting of A, a merchant in London.
B is a merchant in Calcutta, who has written letters addressed to A and received letters purporting to be written by him. C, is B’s clerk whose duty to was to examine and file B’s correspondence. D is B’s broker, to whom B habitually submitted the letters purporting to be written by A for the purpose of advising with him thereon.
The opinions of B, C and D on the question whether the letter is in the handwriting of A are relevant, though neither B, C nor D ever saw A write.
Section 46 Indian Evidence Act 1872 (Facts hearing upon opinions of experts)